The Liberal Studies program enables the student to meet elementary education Multiple Subject teacher preparation standards. The Liberal Studies program curriculum likewise serves the Loyola Marymount University mission.
Liberal Studies Student Learning Outcomes
The Liberal Studies program student will master the content required of professional educators in the State of California, to include:
- Key concepts in the following academic fields: the social sciences and history, the arts and humanities, language studies, mathematics and science, health, physical education, human development, and in an approved academic concentration of the candidate’s choice
- Candidates will demonstrate their mastery of the subject matter by successfully passing the CSET (California Subject Examination for Teachers) at the completion of their coursework.
The Liberal Studies program student will master the skills required of professional educators in the State of California:
- To synthesize subject content in the liberal arts, professional content related to classroom teaching, and educational policies
- To apply reading, writing, and research skills appropriate to the work of the academic disciplines being studied
- To apply academic concepts to practical teaching contexts
- To analyze, reflect on, and evaluate the relationships among academic theories, the practical and applied contexts of teaching, and the multiple and complex needs of students comprising a rich and diverse globe
- Candidates will demonstrate the ability to synthesize and the other skills listed above in an exit interview at the completion of required coursework
The Liberal Studies program student will value:
- Intellectual inquiry across a range of subjects
- A world view comprising faith, social justice, and a respect for diversity
- The individual’s role as a future educator who will shape the lives of children, local communities, and larger national and global societies;
Liberal Studies students will develop in their roles as:
- Critical thinkers and creative problem solvers
- Responsible local and global citizens
- Culturally responsive and reflective learners and practitioners
- Collaborators in a community of learners characterized by the Ignatian imagination
- Effective, caring educators who are advocates for equity
- Curricular leaders who value multiple ways of knowing.
There are five components to the Liberal Studies major:
I. University Core Curriculum
48 Semester Hours
Subject-matter requirements for Liberal Studies majors are specific and may differ from those of other majors within the Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts. The core course requirements are spread across 13 courses and three areas–Foundations, Explorations, and Integrations–and include six core “flags.”
- First Year Seminar (3 OR 4 semester hours)
- Rhetorical Arts (3 OR 4 semester hours)
- Quantitative Reasoning: MATH 106 Mathematics for Elementary Teachers I (3 semester hours). Liberal Studies majors must take a placement test and either test out of or take MATH 101 as a prerequisite to MATH 106 .
- Theological Inquiry (4 semester hours)
- Philosophical Inquiry (4 semester hours)
- Studies in American Diversity: Choose from advisor-approved list of ethnic studies related content (4 semester hours)
Choose from advisor-approved list for Interdisciplinary Connections as well as for Ethics and Justice.
Additionally, students fulfill the “flag” requirements as follows:
- Writing (2 flags)
- Oral Skills (1 flag)
- Information Literacy (1 flag)
- Quantitative Reasoning (1 flag)
- Engaged Learning (1 flag)
II. Liberal Studies Major Requirements
55 Semester Hours
III. Education Program Requirements
21 Semester Hours
* Starred courses require a separate application to and acceptance into the Elementary, Bilingual, or Special Education programs. Acceptance into these programs requires an LMU cumulative GPA of 3.0.
9-12 semester hours
Liberal Studies majors fulfill the Multiple Subjects student teaching requirement for the teaching credential by completing 9-12 semester hours of Directed Teaching, which are applied toward both the semester hour requirement for the baccalaureate degree in Liberal Studies and the requirements for the credential within the state of California. Whereas the B.A. degree in Liberal Studies and California teaching credential are separate, many requirements for the credential are earned through fulfilling the B.A. requirements, including student teaching, where this is met through elective units taken as Elementary Directed Teaching (EDCE 410 ).
12-20 semester hours
In addition to the above requirements, all Liberal Studies majors complete a minimum of 12 semester hours of coursework in a chosen area of concentration, which represents a subject area generally taught in elementary schools or a related area of study. With careful planning, the concentration can constitute most, if not all, of an LMU minor. Students must declare a concentration by the fall semester of their sophomore year. See the Bulletin for qualifying concentrations and their specific requirements.
Bilingual Authorization (9 semester hours)
Credential candidates with the demonstrated requisite language proficiency can earn a bilingual authorization to teach in either Spanish or Mandarin in an elementary classroom. The authorization requires students to complete part of their coursework and student teaching in a bilingual classroom. The bilingual authorization may contribute to meeting other requirements as well, such as those for particular concentrations, including the concentration in Bilingualism and Biliteracy. See the Director of Bilingual Programs if interested in earning the bilingual authorization.
Art History (ARHS)–20 semester hours
Think for a moment about the phrase, “A picture is worth a thousand words.” What is it about an image that can convey so much thought and emotion in an instant? Why is it that, when one thinks of a particular religion, culture, or society, the art forms instantly come to mind? One reason is that imagery is immediately accessible to the mind in a way that words and texts are not. The study of Art History is learning about history and human thought through artifacts and images. A work of art or architecture is a tangible historical document, one that can be read for information in the same way that one reads a book. An artifact, painting or building can provide very specific data and inform us on virtually every field of the human endeavor. In other words, Art History connects us to all the Humanities and Social Sciences in very vital ways. In our discipline, we concentrate on learning to glean information from works of art about the history of an age as well as the intellectual processes of the creators and appreciators of the art. Please see also the Studio Arts concentration.
The ARHS concentration constitutes a minor in ARHS.
Advisor: Dr. Damon Willick, Damon.Willick@lmu.edu, 310.258.8643
Asian and Pacific Studies (ASPA)–16 semester hours
Asian and Pacific Studies, an interdisciplinary area studies program, provides a general background to the traditions and cultures of Asia and the Pacific as well as an understanding of contemporary issues relating to that region. Furthermore, given the recent shift of interest to the Pacific region, it aims to deepen the student’s knowledge of Asia and the Pacific or of an Asian/Pacific country/area through a concentrated study in one academic discipline. This academic program, therefore, is intended to develop the student’s personal interest in Asian and Pacific affairs and to prepare her or him for Asia-related career opportunities. All students are encouraged to spend some time in Asia through the various programs available to them.
A minor in ASPA requires one additional course, ASPA 5000 .
Advisor: Dr. Robin Wang, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.5941, UH 3643
Asian Pacific American Studies (APAM)–12 semester hours
Asian Pacific American Studies is a program that supports Loyola Marymount’s commitment to multicultural education by offering courses that enhance student understanding of the history and contemporary issues that impact the lives of Asian Pacific Americans in the United States. People of all races and ethnicities are encouraged to enroll in APAM courses. Only through a critical understanding of our multicultural society can we begin to live together, learn together, work together, and forge new ties that bind together.
- APAM lower division course (4 semester hours)
- APAM upper division courses (8 semester hours)
A minor in APAM requires one additional lower division, one upper division, and APAM 5000 .
Advisor: Professor Constance Chen, email@example.com, 310.338.2369
Bilingualism and Biliteracy (BLBL)–12-13 semester hours
The Liberal Studies concentration in Bilingualism and Biliteracy is designed to allow credential candidates with the requisite language proficiency to also earn the Bilingual Authorization to teach bilingually, which at LMU currently is offered in Spanish and Mandarin. Required coursework includes the study of methodology, culture, and the processes of bilingualism and biliteracy. Students earning the authorization are required to do half of their student teaching in a bilingual setting as well. The required authorization courses follow either the Spanish or Mandarin track for a total of 9 semester hours. For students earning the LBST concentration in bilingualism and biliteracy, an additional upper division course, approved by the Director of Bilingual Programs at LMU will be required, for a total of 12-13 semester hours.
- Bilingualism and Biliteracy: Spanish Track
- Bilingualism and Biliteracy: Mandarin Track
Advisor: Dr. Olga Moraga, Olga.Moraga@lmu.edu, 310.338.3778, UH 2600
Chicana/o Studies (CLST)–16 semester hours
California schools are filled with Latino children. Currently, Latinos comprise over 38% of the state of California, and in Los Angeles, Latinos are 48% of the city’s population. Of this group, over 70% are of Mexican heritage. More dramatically, the Los Angeles Unified School District reports that nearly 73% of its students are Latino. Future predictions indicate that immigration and birth rate will continue to contribute to a growing Latino population, specifically within the Mexican American community. Chicana/o Studies courses expose teachers to the critical tools necessary for understanding the immigrant experience in the United States. More importantly, the interdisciplinary training in Chicana/o Studies courses shows teachers how to think about the multiple social pressures that affect their students and supports multiple strategies for addressing the challenges that Latino and immigrant children experience in the classroom, in their communities, and in society. The department’s emphasis on critical analysis, the historical perspective, experiential knowledge, and cultural production provides teachers with vital skills for the educational success of all students in their classrooms. Chicana/o Studies courses also help teachers understand the home life, economic realities, and cultural heritage of their students. In addition to course content, Chicana/o Studies professors use teaching and learning techniques that when transferred to the K-12 classroom can produce educational success: courses include creative problem-solving, student-centered learning, critical thinking, collaboration, oral communication, and clarity of expression. Finally, teachers who aim to “give something back to their communities” will find support in Chicana/o Studies for a social justice imperative.
A minor in CLST requires three additional courses, CLST 2206 , CLST 4404 , and CLST 5000 .
Advisor: Dr. Karen Mary Davalos, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.5750, UH 4419
Dance (DANC)–18 semester hours
The Dance curriculum builds upon the foundation of dance as a humanistic experience. The study of dance as an art form serves as the heart of the course of study. Studio and theory coursework are designed to integrate practical dance experience with more formal academic study so that the student is educated as a dancer who can perform, write, and speak about the art of dance and dancing.
The Dance concentration constitutes a minor in DANC. Students should be aware that DANC 363 and DANC 385 cannot be applied towards the concentration requirement, although the Bulletin lists them among the options for the Theory requirement for the minor.
Advisor: Judy Scalin, email@example.com, 310.338.5160, Burns 250
Early Childhood Education (ECED)–12 semester hours
The concentration in Early Childhood Education is designed for Liberal Studies majors with an interest in the development of children, from prenatal development to age eight. Students will comprehensively examine the whole child, prenatal development through age 8. In addition to an in-depth understanding of all developmental domains (cognitive, language, social, emotional, and physical), students will gain knowledge of theory, research, and developmentally appropriate best practices. Coursework includes an emphasis on significant issues found in early childhood education, such as environmental influences from the family and community, children with special needs, diversity, second language learners, and social justice.
Advisor: Liza Moritz Mastrippolito, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.568.6697, UH 2644
English (ENGL)–16 semester hours
Believing that literature is a profound expression of human experience, the English Department uses a range of critical methods to introduce students to literatures in English from a variety of cultural traditions. The course work reveals the art form’s creative beauty, strategies for representing the human experience, and its power to shape the reader. The English Department encourages an understanding of the critical and creative union of reading and writing as fundamental to the processes of developing the human self. Through their imaginations, students who concentrate or minor in English interact with language and literature, thereby encountering another equally open and attentive mind: that of the writer whose work they are reading.
Advisor: Dr. Stuart Ching, email: email@example.com, 310.338.4451, UH 3863
History (HIST)–12 semester hours
The study of history is integral to Loyola Marymount University’s mission as a university in the Jesuit/Marymount, Catholic, and liberal arts traditions. It contributes to “the encouragement of learning” through intellectually demanding courses that cultivate an understanding of both familiar and unfamiliar pasts and cultures. It educates “the whole person” by focusing on a multiplicity of perspectives and experiences, and by attempting to understand the lived, bodily experience of the “whole person” in the past. History courses ground discussions of “the service of faith and the promotion of justice” by putting these ideas in context, showing change over time, and emphasizing how today’s world evolved out of the contingent actions of and interactions between individuals and groups of people. The study of history enables the student to examine cultures, religions, and the interconnections among peoples and societies as complex historical phenomena, human structures open to historical interpretation and analysis. Historical perspective thus provides insight into the sequence of events, into the relationship of events at diverse times and places, and into the dynamism of structures and beliefs that can otherwise appear fixed or predetermined. The study of history therefore also leads to greater sensitivity to and awareness of cultural differences and similarities, as well as conflicting interpretations of events.
Three four-semester-hour HIST courses (12 semester hours):
- One of the following HIST courses (these are required for the Liberal Studies major):
a. HIST 1300 Becoming America , HIST 1301 America and the Atlantic World 1450-1850 , HIST 1400 The United States and the World , OR HIST 1401 The United States and the Pacific World ;
b. HIST 1010 Premodern World History OR HIST 1050 Modern World History ;
c. HIST 4412 History of California
2. One lower-division HIST course in World Regions (Africa, Asia, Latin America, or Middle East); 15xx, 16xx, 17xx, or 18xx
3. One upper-division HIST course (3xxx or 4xxx) (may not include HIST 4412 History of California )
Advisor: Dr. Amy Woodson-Boulton, Amy.Woodson-Boulton@lmu.edu, 310.338.2808, UH 3434
Mathematics (MATH)–12 semester hours
Through the concentration in Mathematics, future teachers develop an increased understanding of mathematical ideas and learn how creativity and imagination play an integral part of mathematics in general.
Note: Students completing a MATH concentration should talk to the Liberal Studies Mathematics Concentration Advisor about offerings designed for future teachers.
Supplementary Authorization in (Introductory) Mathematics: A Supplementary Authorization in (Introductory) Mathematics allows one to teach mathematics through ninth grade (for more details on the Supplementary Authorization, visit the website of the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing). A Supplementary Authorization requires 20 semester hours of courses in mathematics (or 10 upper-division semester hours), including three semesters of calculus. If the courses for the concentration are chosen appropriately, one additional course (together with MATH 106 and MATH 207 ) will allow students to apply for a Supplementary Authorization in (Introductory) Mathematics).
Advisor: Dr. Blake Mellor, Blake.Mellor@lmu.edu, 310.338.5775, UH 2712.
Modern Languages and Literatures (Chinese-CHIN, French-FREN, German-GRMN, Italian-ITAL, or Spanish-SPAN)–16 semester hours
The Department equips students with language proficiency as it introduces them to the multicultural nature and historical evolution of literary and other texts in the target languages. Our courses provide opportunities to comprehend, interpret, and practice linguistic skills through oral and written exercises and assignments. Our courses include linguistics, literature, history, and the arts, through which students acquire an increasing commitment to the mission of the University. The Department strives to provide tools to foster transcultural understanding as the basis for mutual respect, global harmony, and social justice.
Note: Students may be required to complete prerequisite language coursework prior to taking advanced language courses.
- 4th semester language (4 semester hours) (CHIN 2104 , FREN 3104 , GRMN 2104 , ITAL 2104 , or SPAN 2804 , etc.)
- 3 upper division courses (12 semester hours); refer to the LMU Bulletin for specific upper division requirement sequences for each language
Students concentrating in CHIN, FREN, GRMN, and ITAL will be obtaining a minor. Students in SPAN will need a 4000-level course to obtain a minor.
(CHIN) Dr. Xiaojing Sun, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.3051, UH 3904
(FREN) Dr. Véronique Flambard-Weisbart, email@example.com, 310.338.3095, UH 3947
(GRMN) Dr. Petra Liedke-Konow, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.3055, UH 3953
(ITAL) Dr. Áine O’Healy, email@example.com, 310.338.7423, UH 3945
(SPAN) Dr. Alicia Partnoy, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.3011, UH 3961
Music (MUSC)–14 semester hours
The purpose of the Department of Music is to provide quality instruction for students who wish to pursue a career in music and for those who would like to enrich their lives through non-career oriented study and performance. Students and faculty work together to foster aesthetic involvement and creative and scholarly inquiry that support a vital community of music learning. Instruction emphasizes a personal approach. Through the presentation of diverse musical programs, the department also sustains and enriches the cultural vitality of the university and its surrounding communities. The work of the department further supports the goals of Jesuit and Marymount education by strengthening the humanizing influence of music within the University and in the world at large.
In addition to the requirements above, a MUSC minor requires: an audition for admission, two semesters of applied emphasis (voice or instrumental lessons), two semesters of ensemble, the third semester of music history, and two semesters of foreign language (choices: French, German, or Italian).
Advisor: Dr. Mark Saya, Chair, Department of Music, email@example.com, 310.338.3010, Burns 101
Political Science (POLS)–20 semester hours
The department challenges and encourages students to be perceptive observers of political life in all its variety and richness; to seek a systematic understanding of the causes and consequences of political institutions, policies, and behavior; to develop a moral and ethical perspective that allows them to critically evaluate actions, institutions, and policies; and to prepare themselves for a life of active citizenship and involvement in creating a more just and humane world.
- Choice of two (8 semester hours) of the following:
- Three (3) POLS upper division courses (12 semester hours)
In consultation with a POLS advisor regarding the selection of the upper division courses, this concentration may constitute a minor.
Advisor: Dr. Lance Blakesley, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.7377, UH 4127
Psychology (PSYC)–12 semester hours
Students of psychology examine in depth and from a scientific perspective many aspects of human and animal behavior, emphasizing the biological, psychological, and sociocultural aspects of behavior and mental activity. The Department of Psychology provides students with the opportunity to apply these perspectives to a variety of individual, family, and community contexts.
- PSYC 3000-level courses (12 semester hours) (exclusive of PSYC 3052 in cases where that is an existing program requirement)
Note that PSYC 1000 is a prerequisite for 3000-level psychology courses (it also will fulfill the Explorations: Understanding Human Behavior requirement in the University Core). A minor in PSYC requires the completion of three lower division courses and three upper division courses; a minor in PSYC will be accepted in place of the concentration above for students who pursue the minor.
Advisor: Dr. David Hardy, email@example.com, 310.338.5294, UH 4745
Science (SNCE)–18 semester hours
The concentration in Science was designed to enable Liberal Studies majors with an interest in science to create an individualized program of study around a central theme. Each student will work with the Liberal Studies Science Advisor to identify an area of interest and formulate a curricular plan that provides each student with a strong foundation and enables him/her to develop a more in-depth understanding of the topic of interest by taking at least one and in many cases two upper division courses.
Satisfactory completion of the concentration in science will require that each student complete a minimum of 18-19 semester hours in one or more of the science disciplines. At least 3 of these semester hours must be upper division.
All concentrations in science will include 4 science core semester hours from SCEM 270 and 3 science education internship hours. The remaining 11-12 semester hours will form the core of the concentration in science and will reflect the central theme. The following examples are by no means exhaustive and are only provided to demonstrate the flexibility of the concentration; there is even room for flexibility within the samples below. Any student considering a concentration in science should make an appointment to discuss his/her options with the Liberal Studies Science Advisor as soon as possible to ensure adequate time to fulfill the requirements.
Total: 13 semester hours
Humans and the Environment (Sample)
Total: 12 semester hours
Total: 12 semester hours
Total: 14 semester hours
Advisor: Dr. Carolyn Viviano, Carolyn.Viviano@lmu.edu, 310.338.7828, North Hall 207
Sociology (SOCL)–16 semester hours
Teachers play a key role in the intellectual and social development of children, and the lessons they teach are important in determining the individual character, social responsibility, and future career paths of students. Sociology courses expose teachers to the distinctive perspectives, problems, and concerns of different persons and groups in society and suggest ways to resolve conflicts and produce more equitable and just relationships and communities. Sociology classes help teachers develop skills of creative problem solving, critical thinking, and collaborative interaction useful in the classroom and impart techniques of data collection and analysis which facilitate observation and evaluation of student performance.
A minor in SOCL requires one more course, SOCL 2000 or SOCL 2100 .
Advisor: Dr. Anna Muraco, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.1754, UH 4329
Special Education (SPED)–12 semester hours
The Special Education program in LMU’s School of Education is designed to prepare undergraduate students to teach and work with children and youth with a variety of special needs. The Special Education concentration prepares students to work with students with Mild/Moderate disabilities in the General Education classroom. Through the SPED concentration students learn, for example, about major issues in Special Education, how to develop an IEP, and are able to observe and participate in K-12 classrooms with experienced teachers working with students with a variety of special needs. Students also benefit from a capstone course in SPED. The SPED concentration requires the following:
* Although EDSS 455 is not required for the LBST SPED Concentration if the student has taken EDSS 440 , it is recommended that LBST students earning the SPED Concentration take this course as well.
A minor in SPED requires two additional courses– EDSS 436 Creating Collaborative Partnerships and EDSS 499 Independent Studies , taken as the Undergraduate Special Education Capstone Project (for a total of 18 semester hours). Students should consult with the SPED concentration or minor advisor regarding sequencing of the coursework.
Advisor: Gloria Davidson, Gloria.Davidson@lmu.edu, 310.338.5209, UH 2100
Studio Arts (STAR)–18 semester hours
The Studio Arts concentration is designed to develop the Liberal Studies student in the visual arts, both personally and professionally. In this concentration you will learn a universal language through which diverse groups of people can communicate ideas, feelings, histories, and cultural traditions across boundaries of race, gender, age, and ethnicity. Decades of practice and a growing body of research have documented the links between arts education and the development of higher level thinking skills. Through this concentration, you will learn how art has the potential to enrich your life, and the lives of your future students.
The Art concentration constitutes a minor in Art.
Advisor: Terry Lenihan, email@example.com, 310.338.5130, Burns 155
Theatre Arts (THEA)–18 semester hours
The Theatre Arts curriculum is planned to provide a broad education in the humanities and to develop in the student an appreciation of the self and the universality of the human experience. Participation in the performing arts experience is central to this work. Some students may elect to emphasize work in the areas of acting, directing, playwriting, history/literature/criticism, or design/technical theatre. The Theatre Arts program is accredited by the National Association of Schools of Theatre.
- THEA lower division courses (6 semester hours)
- THEA upper division courses (12 semester hours)
The THEA concentration constitutes a minor in THEA; students interested in a THEA minor should consult with an advisor in the THEA department regarding sequencing of the coursework and the required participation in departmentally-sponsored events.
Advisor: Dr. Diane Benedict, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.1530, Foley 309
Urban Studies (URBN)–16 semester hours
Urban Studies is an interdisciplinary concentration focused on the dynamic processes shaping cities and the lives of their diverse residents. Those who choose a concentration in Urban Studies will be trained to analyze the implications of urbanization and urban policy in the context of social justice and sound environmental practices, recognize the role of rigorous scientific research in resolving the social and environmental problems associated with urbanization, and value community-based participation in the development of programs and policies that contribute to the social, economic, political, and environmental improvement of their communities and cities–all values they can pass on to their future students.
A minor in URBN requires one additional course: URBN 4000 .
Advisor: Dr. Peter Hoffman, email@example.com, 310.338.7380, UH 4323
Women's and Gender Studies (WGST)–12 semester hours
Women’s and Gender Studies is an interdisciplinary field of study that places women at the center of traditional disciplines. It engages students in a critical understanding of the complex ways gender shapes the world around them, particularly in relation to race, sexuality, class, and other social factors. Women’s and Gender Studies encourages the critical examination of academic fields such as humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and the arts and the gendered assumptions underlying them. Pupils in grades K-5 need to learn about Women’s and Gender Studies because women constitute about half of the world’s population, women have contributed much to history and society, and because numerous social justice and gender justice issues remain unsolved.
A minor in WGST requires two additional courses.
Advisor: Dr. Stella Oh, Chair of Women’s and Gender Studies, firstname.lastname@example.org, 310.338.4553, UH 4415
Liberal Studies Model Four-Year Plan
The typical course load for an undergraduate student is 15-16 semester hours per semester. The following model represents a student who is completing a 15-semester-hour concentration, does not need to complete any prerequisites for required coursework, and is pursuing the 2042 Multiple Subject teaching credential. Students with larger concentrations, those required to take MATH 101 (or other prerequisite coursework), and/or those seeking credentials in Bilingual or Special Education may need to “overload” during some semesters and/or complete summer coursework. Please note that the model is provided as a guideline rather than a prescriptive course of study. Students will need to be flexible implementing the model plan, given variability of course availability and other potential scheduling issues in any given semester.
Note: This model does not include some School of Education requirements, which are not required for the Liberal Studies degree, but are required for the teaching credential (i.e., TPAs–Teaching Performance Assessments; Health course requirement). These requirements relate to the teaching credential and are independent of the Liberal Studies degree. Students are required to consult with their academic advisor in the School of Education regarding the coordination and sequencing of specific School of Education requirements.
Total: 17-18 semester hours
Total: 16-19 semester hours
Total: 17-18 semester hours
Total: 17-18 semester hours
Total: 13-15 semester hours
Total: 12-18 semester hours
Total: 9-12 semester hours
Coursework completed during this semester must be coordinated such that it does not conflict with the student teaching assignment.
This four-year plan serves only as a general model. Please meet with your advisor at least once a semester to discuss your progress in the program and plans for future semesters.