Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 101  General Biology I  (3 semester hours)  
Unifying principles of biology; introduction to cell structure and function, genetics, control systems, tissues, organs, and organ systems. Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering majors only. Lecture, 3 hours.
BIOL 102  General Biology II  (3 semester hours)  
An introduction to the mechanism of evolution; major patterns of biotic evolution; and the principles of ecology. Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering majors only. Lecture, 3 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOL 111.
BIOL 111  General Biology I Lab  (2 semester hours)  
A survey of the three domains of life and exploration of the morphological, functional, and environmental factors that influence their biodiversity. Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering majors only. Lecture, 1 hour; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisite: BIOL 101 or concurrent enrollment.
BIOL 112  General Biology II Lab  (2 semester hours)  
An experimental approach to biology with emphasis on design, execution, and analysis to answer biological questions. Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering majors only. Lecture, 1 hour; Laboratory 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102 or concurrent enrollment, and BIOL 111.
BIOL 114  Biology for Engineers  (3 semester hours)  
This course addresses fundamental concepts and language of biology. Topics include cell biology, genetics, organ systems, ecosystems, organisms, and engineering applications. Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering majors only. Lecture, 3 hours.
BIOL 190  First Year Biology Seminar  (0 semester hours)  
This course provides perspectives and insight into being a successful Biology major at Loyola Marymount University, including available resources and activities such as course registration and meeting with academic advisors. Students will learn about how to identify and get involved in scientific research on campus and will hear professional seminars from campus and visiting biologists. Biology majors only. Credit/No Credit grading. Lecture: 1 hour. Corequisite: BIOL 111.
BIOL 194  Introduction to Research  (1 semester hour)  
An introduction to scientific research methodology: information gathering, data analysis, laboratory research practice in a faculty laboratory.
BIOL 196  Independent Research With Faculty  (1 semester hour)  
Independent undergraduate research in a faculty laboratory. Credit/No Credit grading. Consent of instructor required. May be repeated for credit.
BIOL 198  Special Studies  (0-4 semester hours)  
BIOL 199  Independent Studies  (1-4 semester hours)  
BIOL 201  Cell Function  (3 semester hours)  
Cellular and sub-cellular structures and functions including: DNA and RNA structure and function; protein synthesis and structure; enzyme function; metabolic pathways; membrane function. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, CHEM 112, or concurrent enrollment.
BIOL 202  Genetics  (3 semester hours)  
A study of Mendelian and molecular genetics. Prerequisite: BIOL 201. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics.
BIOL 214  Environmental Biology  (3 semester hours)  
Provides a background in the fundamental concepts of biology, microbiology, and ecosystems and their importance and relationships to a variety of civil and environmental engineering applications. Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering majors only. Lecture, 3 hours.
BIOL 216  Medical Microbiology  (3 semester hours)  
The major features and biology of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, fungi), including reproduction, virulence, and control both inside and outside the host. Emphasis will be placed on the interactions of microorganisms with humans, especially those microorganisms that cause disease and the host's immune response during infection. Lecture, 3 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, CHEM 110, and CHEM 111. Health and Human Science majors only.
BIOL 217  Medical Microbiology Lab  (1 semester hour)  
Basic techniques for the handling and culture of bacteria; sterile technique, sample collection, and isolation of bacteria; staining and microscopy, characterization and identification of unknown bacteria; evaluation of antimicrobial agents; diagnostic testing. Lab, 4 hours. Prerequisite: BIOL 216 or concurrent enrollment. Health and Human Science majors only.
BIOL 260  Human Biology  (3 semester hours)  
The discussion of general biological principles with a human emphasis. Topics include: cells; heredity and reproduction; animal behavior; organ systems; drugs; disease; ecology; and evolution. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher.
BIOL 263  Natural History of Southern California  (3 semester hours)  
Introduction to the geography, climate, plant communities, and common animals of Southern California; animals will be covered in regard to behavior, taxonomy, and ecology. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher.
BIOL 264  The Marine Environment  (3 semester hours)  
An introduction to marine biology, including its history, different communities and the animals and plants that occur in marine ecosystems, and their economic importance. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics.
BIOL 266  Sacred and Medicinal Plant Use  (3 semester hours)  
The sacred and medicinal use of plants and fungi by traditional and modern cultures, including the biological basis for their use. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics.
BIOL 271  Human Reproduction and Development  (3 semester hours)  
The biological aspects of human reproduction, including the basic reproductive system, genetics, fetal development, nutrition, pregnancy, birth, and neonatal development. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics.
BIOL 272  Human Drug Use  (3 semester hours)  
The physiological, psychological, and social effects of the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other therapeutic and recreational drugs. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics.
BIOL 275  Human Genetics  (3 semester hours)  
Basic Mendelian genetics and the application to individual risk assessments. Population genetics and the implications of artificial selection. Modern molecular genetics and medical applications. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics; Flag: Quantitative Literacy.
BIOL 276  Epidemics and Infectious Diseases  (3 semester hours)  
An introduction to microbiology with an emphasis on microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi) that cause disease in humans. Viral replication, pathogenic mechanisms of bacteria, transmission of parasites, the function of the immune system, and vaccination will be examined in context of diseases of historical, social, and public health importance. Lecture, 3 hours. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics.
BIOL 277  Plants and Society  (3 semester hours)  
An introduction to the natural evolution of plant species and the associated cultural evolution of man's relationship to plants. A multidisciplinary approach to studying the relationship between plants and people. An exploration of plants as sources of food and medicine, commercial products, and the role of plants in preserving and restoring the environment. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher.
BIOL 278  Tropical Marine Ecology  (3 semester hours)  
Field studies of the tropical marine habitats in Isla Roatan, Honduras. This includes the examination of the ecology and biology of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, and intertidal communities. Summer only - Study Abroad Program. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or higher, or placement into MATH 106 or higher. Open water SCUBA certification highly recommended. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics.
BIOL 294  Independent Research  (0-4 semester hours)  
BIOL 295  Biology Internship  (1-2 semester hours)  
Work experience involving research, industry-, or community-based projects. May be taken only once for credit. Credit/No Credit grading only.
BIOL 296  Independent Research with Faculty  (1 semester hour)  
Independent undergraduate research in a faculty laboratory. Credit/No Credit grading. Consent of instructor required. May be repeated for credit.
BIOL 298  Special Studies  (1-4 semester hours)  
BIOL 299  Independent Studies  (0-4 semester hours)  
BIOL 304  Biostatistical Analysis  (3 semester hours)  
This course is designed to teach students how to analyze and interpret quantitative data using introductory and basic univariate and multivariate statistical methods. It demonstrates practical applications in addition to basic theory. We apply these methods to actual data from biological, ecological, and public health applications. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOL 102; MATH 122 or MATH 131; MATH 123 or MATH 132 or MATH 204. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 309  Applied Plant Ecology  (3 semester hours)  
An integrative course focusing on the foundational role of plants in ecosystems and how ecological principles and theory can be applied to solving local and global conservation and resource management problems. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, and BIOL 201. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 311  Plant Interactions  (3 semester hours)  
Study of various ways in which plants interact with other organisms, such as herbivores, pathogens, symbiotic bacteria and fungi, and the outcomes of that interplay. Examination of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic bases of these interactions and how understanding the chemical and molecular communication that takes place has implications for improvement of agriculture and human health. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 312  Field Botany  (4 semester hours)  
The identification, distribution, evolution, and ecological relationships of the native plants of Southern California. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory 4 hours; 4 weekend field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 110, CHEM 111; MATH 122 or MATH 131. University Core fulfilled: Flag: Engaged Learning. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 314  Tropical Ecology  (4 semester hours)  
An introduction to Neotropical biodiversity, natural history and conservation, as well as an examination of the diversity of tropical species interactions in an international field setting. Travel embedded course--lab travels to Costa Rica during Spring break. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 221; MATH 122 or MATH 131. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 315  World Vegetation Ecology  (3 semester hours)  
Characteristics and distribution of the major vegetation types of the world, emphasizing environmental conditions, plant adaptations and ecosystem processes. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 316  Island Biology  (3 semester hours)  
Island biogeography and evolution, dispersal, adaptive radiation, gigantism/dwarfism, flightlessness, reproductive biology, endemism, and relictualism. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOL 102. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 318  Principles of Ecology  (4 semester hours)  
An exploration of the interactions between organisms and their biotic and abiotic environment across population, community, and ecosystem levels. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours; weekend field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201; MATH 122 or MATH 131. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 319  Coastal Ecology  (3 semester hours)  
This course provides students with a comprehensive overview of the ecology of coastal ecosystems, bridging the gap between terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems. Students will utilize primary literature to study biodiversity, abiotic and biotic interactions, ecological drivers present, and adaptations of organisms to thrive in their unique environments. Students will develop a deep understanding of the ecology of different coastal habitats and current conservation efforts, practice skills in science communication, and engage in discussions on relevant literature and current topics of interest to the course. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102 Consent of Instructor required.
BIOL 320  Coastal Ecology Lab  (1 semester hour)  
In this course, students will engage in both lab and field activities, studying a variety of coastal environments. Students will 1) learn field and laboratory techniques to observe and quantify diversity in a variety of coastal habitats, including the use and effectiveness of conservation efforts; 2) learn to identify Southern California coastal flora and fauna; 3) develop and carry out a research project relevant to the course material; 4) learn to think critically, analyze data, and communicate science effectively in multiple formats. Consent of Instructor required. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112
BIOL 321  Urban Ecology  (3 semester hours)  
An analysis of the dynamic and integrated nature of urbanized landscapes. Using active inquiry and the original literature, the course will engage the current theories and practice of the research being conducted on the patterns and process of urban ecosystems-ranging from biodiversity and trophic dynamics, to public health and environmental justice. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOL 102. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 322  Urban Ecology Lab  (1 semester hour)  
An inquiry-based investigation into the biophysical and human social dimensions of a local urban ecosystem, with a focus on group project development. At least one Saturday trip. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112 and BIOL 321, or concurrent enrollment. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 325  Avian Biology Lab  (1 semester hour)  
An inquiry-based investigation into the biophysical and human social dimensions of a local urban ecosystem, with a focus on group project development. At least one Saturday trip. Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and BIOL 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 327  Quantifying Biodiversity Field Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Biodiversity is the variety of life on Planet Earth at all levels – from genes to ecosystems. In this course we will tackle the practical challenge of quantifying or counting biological diversity. Different methods are better suited for measuring different types of organisms, thus our focus will be on learning an assortment of field-based observational approaches to quantify biodiversity. We will aim to use traditional methods (quadrat sampling, transect sampling, visual searches) and emerging technology tools (remote sensing, environmental DNA, remote-controlled submersible). We will also explore the importance of practical considerations of survey spatial extent and duration, target organism’s life history and population characteristics, terrain and vegetation challenges, and effort/cost trade-offs. Laboratory, 4 hours. Consent of instructor required. Prerequisites: BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112
BIOL 328  Tropical Marine Ecology  (3 semester hours)  
Field studies of the tropical marine habitats on Isla Roatan, Honduras. This includes the examination of physical, chemical, and ecological aspects as applied to coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, and intertidal communities. Summer only - Study Abroad Program. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Open water SCUBA certification highly recommended. University Core fulfilled: Explorations: Nature of Science, Technology, and Mathematics; Flag: Engaged Learning. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 329  Marine Ecology of Baja, California  (3 semester hours)  
Field studies of subtropical, intertidal and subtidal habitats along the coasts of Baja, California, peninsula. Emphasis on community structure. Summer only. Entire course held at the LMU Baja, California Biological Station. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 330  Embryology and Development  (4 semester hours)  
The development of chordates with emphasis on experimental embryology and underlying molecular mechanisms. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 222, CHEM 223. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 333  Biology of Mammals  (4 semester hours)  
Examination of physical, physiological, and ecological characteristics of mammals, including taxonomic relationships, feeding and reproductive strategies, and local and world distribution of mammalian orders and families. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours; Weekend field trips. For majors only. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. University Core fulfilled: Flags: Engaged Learning, Writing. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 334  Invertebrate Zoology  (4 semester hours)  
A study of the anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology of invertebrates and the evolutionary relationships within and among the invertebrate phyla. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 335  Comparative Anatomy  (4 semester hours)  
A comparative study of the vertebrate structures and their significance in terms of their evolution and function. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 338  Animal Behavior  (4 semester hours)  
Study of the evolutionary aspects of behavioral ecology including foraging strategies, social competition, communication, sexual selection, mating systems, cooperation, and social organization. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, and BIOL 112. University Core fulfilled: Flag: Writing. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 340  Embryology  (3 semester hours)  
This class delves into the tissue and cell movements (morphogenesis), into the cellular differentiation pathways, and the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that produce form and function in chordate embryos. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 220 Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 341  Embryology Lab  (1 semester hour)  
The study of embryology through development histologically, through dissection and experimental embryology. Observational skills will be improved through hand-drawn reproductions, learning to recognize embryonic features and stages and become familiar with histology and anatomical terminology in sections. Students will design, conduct, make observations and document, analyze, and write up an approved, novel experimental embryology project of their own choosing. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 222, BIOL 340 or concurrent enrollment; CHEM 222, CHEM 223. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 343  Developmental Biology  (3 semester hours)  
Introduction to the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing the development of multicellular animals, with attention to genetic control. The biology of models systems is emphasized. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, and BIOL 202. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 344  Developmental Biology Lab  (1 semester hour)  
A survey course highlighting developmental principles through observation and experimentation with a variety of animal systems. Topics include fertilization, gastrulation, patterning, organogenesis, and regeneration. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 202, and BIOL 343 or concurrent enrollment. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 351  General Physiology  (3 semester hours)  
Introduction to physiological principles and concepts with emphasis on organ systems. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 201; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 352  General Physiology Lab  (1 semester hour)  
Laboratory experiments in general physiology. Laboratory, 4 hours; Data analysis, 1 hour. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, and BIOL 351 or BIOL 357, or concurrent enrollment. Cannot be taken if already completed BIOL 360. University Core fulfilled: Flags: Quantitative Reasoning, Writing. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 353  Plant Physiology  (3 semester hours)  
Introduction to plant function, including photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolism, and growth processes. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201; CHEM 220, MATH 122 or MATH 131. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 354  Plant Physiology Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Laboratory experiments in plant physiology. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, and BIOL 353 or concurrent enrollment. University Core fulfilled: Flag: Writing. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 355  Plants, Pharmacy, and Medicine  (3 semester hours)  
The historical, ethnobotanical, and chemical basis of medicinal plant use, plant-based pharmaceuticals, and their physiological efficacy. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 201; CHEM 220; MATH 122 or MATH 131. University Core fulfilled: Flag: Oral Skills. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 356  Cell Biology  (3 semester hours)  
A detailed study of subcellular organelles, including their origin, function, and regulation within the cell. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 222, CHEM 223. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 357  Comparative Animal Physiology  (3 semester hours)  
Environmental and evolutionary influences on functioning of animals, focusing on mechanisms and strategies utilized by animals to cope with challenges imposed by their biotic and abiotic surroundings. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 201; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 358  Hormones and Behavior  (4 semester hours)  
Study of the interaction of hormones and behavior in vertebrates. Topics include organizational and activational effects of hormones, sex differences in behavior, reproductive behavior, parental behavior, social behavior, and stress. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201; CHEM 220, CHEM 221. University Core fulfilled: Flag: Engaged Learning. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 359  Cell Biology Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Laboratory experiments in cell biology. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201; CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 360  Comparative Animal Physiology Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Laboratory experiments in Comparative Physiology. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, and BIOL 351 or BIOL 357 or concurrent enrollment. Cannot be taken if already completed BIOL 352. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 361  General Microbiology  (3 semester hours)  
Properties and ecology of viruses, bacteria and protists, including the genetics, physiology, and metabolism of bacteria; pathogenesis, reproduction, and control of bacteria and viruses; host-microbe interactions and immune responses; and microbes as tools for molecular biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201BIOL 202, and CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 362  General Microbiology Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Laboratory experiments in general microbiology. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, and BIOL 361 or BIOL 460 or concurrent enrollment. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 363  Microbial Genomics Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Application of genomics tools, including laboratory methods and computer analyses, in a semester-long research project to understand microbial processes. Laboratory: 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, and BIOL 202. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 364  Cell Culture Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Hands-on experience in maintenance and propagation of mammalian cell cultures, including use of current molecular biology tools in qualitative and quantitative analyses of cells, manipulating cells under various experimental conditions (exposure to cellular stresses), in multiple enquiry-based research projects. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, and BIOL 201. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 367  Biological Databases  (3 semester hours)  
Interdisciplinary course at the interface between biology and computer science focusing on how biological information is encoded in the genome of a cell and represented as data in a database. Biological concepts include DNA structure and function, the central dogma of molecular biology, and regulation of gene expression. Computer science concepts and skills include command line interaction, the structure and functions of a database, and the management of data ranging from individual files to a full relational database management system. Emphasis on science and engineering best practices, such as maintaining journals and notebooks, managing files and code, and critically evaluating scientific and technical information. Course culminates with team projects to create new gene databases. Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and MATH 123 or MATH 132 or MATH 204. University Core fulfilled: Integrations: Interdisciplinary Connections; Flags: Information Literacy, Oral Skills. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 368  Bioinformatics Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Current bioinformatics techniques will be used to address systems-level biological questions. Techniques may include: querying biological databases, sequence alignment, construction of phylogenetic trees, comparative genomics, genome annotation, protein structure analysis and prediction, modeling pathways and networks, use of biological ontologies, or the analysis of high-throughput genomic and proteomic data. Laboratory: 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 202; CHEM 220. University Core fulfilled: Flags: Information Literacy, Oral Skills. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 370  Plant Biotechnology  (3 semester hours)  
Biotechnology is a broad discipline in which biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components are exploited to develop new technologies. Plant biotechnology employs a wide range of tools, including traditional breeding techniques and genetic engineering, to create plants with improved traits--more productive crops, more nutritious foods, and the production of biomaterials, medicines, and bioenergy. Principles of genetics, molecular biology, genomics, biochemistry, plant cell and tissue culture, and agronomy are employed to develop these novel technologies. We will discuss methodologies used to produce these plants, the genes that have been introduced to crop plants, and commercial product development. The course will also address concerns associated with plant biotechnology, including food safety, ecological risks, and resistance. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201, and CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 371  Protein Biotechnology Lab  (1 semester hour)  
Experimental methodology to study proteomics and protein structure and function, integrating methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, microscopy, structural biology and bioinformatics. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 375  Advanced Genetics  (3 semester hours)  
Topics in genetics including both meiotic and mitotic recombination, quantitative genetics, gene structure, genetic control, and gene therapy. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 376  Genetics Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Laboratory experiments in genetics. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 380  Tropical Marine Ecology Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 381  Baja Marine Ecology Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 388  Biomathematical Modeling  (3 semester hours)  
Introduction to mathematical and statistical concepts closely related to research problems in biology. Biological topics include the structure, function, and regulation of the three major types of cellular pathways: metabolic, signaling, and gene regulatory pathways. Mathematical topics include statistical analysis of biological measurements, dynamic modeling of biological systems, and fitting models to observed data. Students will critically evaluate the primary literature and carry out three major modeling projects throughout the semester. Prerequisites: BIOL 201; and MATH 123 or MATH 132 or MATH 204 or MATH 205 with a grade of C (2.0) or higher. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 394  Independent Research  (0-4 semester hours)  
Independent research in a faculty laboratory. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 395  Biology Internship  (1-2 semester hours)  
Work experience involving research, industry-, or community-based projects. May be taken only once for credit. Credit/No Credit grading only. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 396  Independent Research with Faculty  (1 semester hour)  
Independent undergraduate research in a faculty laboratory. Credit/No Credit grading. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 398  Special Studies  (1-4 semester hours)  
Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 399  Independent Studies  (0-4 semester hours)  
Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 422  Marine Biology  (4 semester hours)  
Marine biology will provide students with an introduction to the physical and biological world: the oceans. This course is integrative, focusing on function, biodiversity, and ecology of marine organisms. In addition, students will learn how abiotic processes shape marine environments and the ecology and evolution of marine organisms. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. University Core fulfilled: Flags: Engaged Learning, Information Literacy. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 423  Marine Conservation Biology  (3 semester hours)  
Marine Conservation Biology focuses on conservation issues faced and potential solutions in marine environments. Examples include climate change and climate change mitigation, unsustainable overfishing and fisheries management, marine habitat loss and marine protected area planning, and other issues and their potential solutions. After taking the course students will be able to: 1 (identify human-caused environmental changes effecting marine environments, 2) understand the science behind these changes, 3) consider and discuss potential solutions to the issues, and 4) explain the public policy context behind a diversity of marine conservation issues and management solutions.
BIOL 424  Marine Physiology Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
An inquiry-based investigation into the relationship between abiotic factors and marine invertebrate physiology. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, and BIOL 201. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 433  Histology  (3 semester hours)  
The structure and function of human tissue types including basic histological techniques. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 110, CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 437  Plant Development  (3 semester hours)  
Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches to the study of pattern and tissue formation, embryogenesis, germination, flowering, photosynthesis, and plant-microbe interaction. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 222, CHEM 223 or concurrent enrollment. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 438  Plant Development Laboratory  (1 semester hour)  
Laboratory experiments in plant developmental biology. Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, and BIOL 437 or 370, or concurrent enrollment. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 439  Molecular Biology Applications  (4 semester hours)  
The application of the techniques employed in molecular biology to the study of inherited diseases, genetic engineering, infectious diseases, cancer, and gene therapy. Lecture, 2 hours; Laboratory, 6 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 202: CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 440  Molecular Neurobiology  (3 semester hours)  
A comprehensive study of the physiological and molecular properties of individual nerve cells and the synaptic connections between them. Basic mechanisms of mammalian nervous system function through the study of human neurological diseases, and how cellular and molecular basis of these diseases is driving therapeutic development will be discussed. Topics range from neuronal structure and function, communication at the synapse, biophysics of single channel gating, and transmission across chemical and electrical synapses. Additionally, actions of drugs on brain at clinical, cellular, and molecular levels will be explored. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201, and CHEM 112. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 443  Molecular Biology  (3 semester hours)  
Study of properties, synthesis, and interactions of macromolecules; genetic engineering. Prerequisites: BIOL 202; CHEM 220, CHEM 222. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 445  Endocrinology  (3 semester hours)  
The study of the production, functions, and interactions of hormones and other chemical messengers involved in the integration of the living organism. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201, BIOL 202, and CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 446  Behavioral Endocrinology  (3 semester hours)  
This course discusses foundational literature and recent advances in the study of the interaction between hormones and behavior. The role of hormones in regulating various animal behaviors, including reproductive, parental, and social behaviors will be major themes of this course. We will also focus on experiments and techniques for studying how hormones facilitate behavioral and physical responses in vertebrates. Pre-requisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 202 Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 449  Immunology  (3 semester hours)  
The study of the human immune system, including innate and adaptive immune responses; the interaction of cells, receptors, and soluble factors during an immune response; the development of B and T cells; and the role of the immune systems in health and disease. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 201, BIOL 202, and CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 450  Physiology of Disease  (3 semester hours)  
Examination of normal function and selected disease-associated dysfunctions of the body's organ systems. Prerequisites: BIOL 102, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 220.. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 456  Molecular Cell Biology and Lab  (4 semester hours)  
Advanced study of topics in cell biology: subcellular organelles and structures; molecular and biochemical analysis of genome organization, RNA and protein trafficking, regulation of the cell cycle; virus-host cell interactions; cell movement and communication. Laboratory experiments that examine cellular structure and function. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 202; CHEM 222, CHEM 223. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 459  Stem Cell Biology  (3 semester hours)  
This course provides an introduction to progenitor and stem cell biology, and the role of these cell types in development, homeostasis, and potential therapeutics. These topics are explored in several model systems and in humans, with an emphasis on scientific research. Pre-requisites: BIOL 201, BIOL 202 Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 460  Environmental Microbiology  (3 semester hours)  
Introduction to the diversity of microorganisms and their role in ecological and environmental processes in soil, water, and air; environmental services provided by microorganisms; and how microbial functions are utilized in managed and artificial systems. Prerequisites: BIOL 101BIOL 201, and either CHEM 220 or ENVS 358. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 461  Microbial Genetics  (3 semester hours)  
Mechanisms of inheritance and the regulation of gene expression in bacteria and viruses. Viral interactions with higher eukaryotes. Prerequisites: BIOL 202; CHEM 222, CHEM 223 or concurrent enrollment. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 472  Epidemiology  (3 semester hours)  
Introduction to the principles of epidemiology, including factors governing health and disease in populations. Lecture, 3 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOL 102. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 474  Principles of Evolution  (3 semester hours)  
Study of the pattern and process of evolution. Topics include the development of theories of evolutionary change; the mechanisms of evolutionary change at the population (micro) level; and evolution at the macro level, focusing on speciation, phylogenetic analysis, historical biogeography, and extinctions. Lecture, 3 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 201, BIOL 202. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 475  Evolution  (4 semester hours)  
Study of the pattern and process of evolution. Topics include the development of theories of evolutionary change; the mechanisms of evolutionary change at the population (micro) level; and evolution at the macro level, focusing on speciation, phylogenetic analysis, historical biogeography, and extinctions. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 201, BIOL 202. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 477  Conservation Genetics  (4 semester hours)  
Survey of the major topics in conservation genetics. Basic models of population genetics and topics relevant to conservation genetics, such as population structure, inbreeding, genetic load, genetic variation, reserve design, and the ethical, moral, and political aspects of species conservation. Lecture, 3 hours; Laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 202. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 478  Molecular Biology of the Genome  (4 semester hours)  
Advances in understanding cellular processes, gene expression, and the structure and function of macromolecules due to The Human Genome Project and associated new high-throughput techniques. Use of systems biology perspectives and bioinformatics tools to answer biological questions. May include: functional genomics, and biological pathways and networks. Lecture, 2 hours; Laboratory, 6 hours. University Core fulfilled: Flag: Information Literacy. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 202; CHEM 220. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 479  Molecular Mechanisms of Disease  (3 semester hours)  
Analysis of the molecular mechanisms which underlie the pathology of genetic and infectious diseases. Particular attention paid to molevular mechanisms of disease treatment and experimental analysis in the field of human molecular genetics. Prerequisites: BIOL 202; CHEM 220, CHEM 222. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 490  Biological Teaching  (1 semester hour)  
Guided teaching of undergraduate laboratories. May be repeated for credit. Consent of instructor required. Credit/No Credit grading only.
BIOL 491  First Year Biological Teaching  (1-2 semester hours)  
Guided teaching of first year undergraduate laboratories. May be repeated for credit for up to 4 semester hours. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 494  Independent Research  (0-4 semester hours)  
Independent research in a faculty laboratory. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 496  Independent Research with Faculty  (1 semester hour)  
Independent undergraduate research in a faculty laboratory. Credit/No Credit grading. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 498  Special Studies  (1-4 semester hours)  
Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 499  Independent Studies  (0-4 semester hours)  
Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 515  Ecology of Mutualisms  (2 semester hours)  
Characterization of conditional interspecific interactions and investigations into the variability of outcomes as mediated by seasonality, chemistry, novel habitats, and morphology. Prerequisites: BIOL 102, BIOL 111, BIOL 112; CHEM 113; MATH 122 or MATH 131. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 518  Applied Ecology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in original laboratory and/or field research in applied ecology, to address questions in conservation, resource management, and ecological sustainability. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 520  Urban Ecology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Research on the dynamic and integrated nature of urbanized landscapes. Projects may include the study of the patterns and process of urban ecosystem–ranging from biodiversity and trophic dynamics, to public health and environmental justice. Consent of Instructor required.
BIOL 521  Urban Ecology  (3 semester hours)  
An analysis of the dynamic and integrated nature of urbanized landscapes. Using active inquiry and the original literature, the course will engage the current theories and practice of the research being conducted on the patterns and process of urban ecosystem - ranging from biodiversity and trophic dynamics, to public health and environmental justice. Enrollment in Urban Ecology Track or consent of program director required. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 522  Marine Biology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in marine biology, ecology, and conservation research. Research may include relevant field or laboratory work and current marine science methodologies. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 523  Marine Conservation Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in marine conservation research. Research may include relevant field or laboratory work and current marine science methodologies. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 524  Marine Ecophysiology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Directed senior level research in the physiology and ecology of marine organisms. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 525  Marine Physiology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in original laboratory and/or field research related to marine environmental physiology. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 528  Invertebrate Conservation Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in research on topics in invertebrate conservation biology. Research may include ecological and/or genetic approaches and methodologies. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 531  Developmental Genetics Research  (2 semester hours)  
Investigation through original literature and laboratory experience of the ways in which genes direct development. Prerequisite: BIOL 394, BIOL 494, or BIOL 594. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 532  Drosophila Genetics Research  (2 semester hours)  
An introduction to the use of drosophila as a research tool in classical and molecular genetics. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 534  Cardiac Neural Crest Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in original research on the development of the cardiac neural crest, primarily using the chicken embryo as a model organism. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 536  Functional Morphology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in original research investigating the functional aspect of morphology and development in carnivorous mammals. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 537  Vertebrate Paleontology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in original research investigating functional, evolutionary and ecological aspects of vertebrate paleontology in mammals and birds. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 551  Behavior and Physiology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in original laboratory and/or field research on social birds or mammals, addressing questions at the interfaces of behavior, physiology and ecology. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 552  Avian Biology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in laboratory and/or field research on birds, addressing questions at the interfaces of behavior, physiology, and ecology. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 561  Bioinformatics and Genomics Research  (2 semester hours)  
Investigation of the systems-level properties of biological pathways and networks. Research may include bioinformatics and/or functional genomics techniques. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 562  Microbiology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in research investigating the role of microbes in the environment using culture based and molecular techniques. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 563  Molecular Genetics Research  (2 semester hours)  
Laboratory work in gene mapping and gene isolation. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 565  Plant Developmental Biology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Laboratory work in molecular and genetic analysis of plant development. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 566  Plant Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in laboratory and/or field research on the ecophysiological response of plants to environmental extremes. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 567  Plant-Microbe Interactions Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in research investigating the association between microbes and plants. Requires consent of instructor.Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 569  Ethnobotany Seminar  (2 semester hours)  
An introduction to the mutual relationships between plants and traditional peoples with an emphasis on phyto medicines and sustainability. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 571  Conservation Biology Seminar  (2 semester hours)  
A survey of topics relating to the conservation of animals and plants, including extinction, genetic aspects, demography, insularization, threats to biodiversity, economics and politics, religious and ethical perspectives, and practical applications. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 574  Evolutionary Ecology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Participation in original field, laboratory, and/or computational research that addresses questions at the interface between evolutionary biology and ecology. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 575  Mitochondrial Biology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Independent laboratory research examining questions pertaining to import of proteins into mitochondria utilizing current molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, and genetic techniques in yeast and mammalian systems. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 584  Advanced Topics in Gene Expression  (2 semester hours)  
An in-depth exposure to topics in gene expression through analysis of data from primary research literature. Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and BIOL 202. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 585  Issues in Biotechnology Seminar  (2 semester hours)  
An interdisciplinary seminar series bringing together faculty from different disciplines to present and discuss topics in biotechnology. Examples include sustainable agriculture, advances in medicine and biotechnology, legal and ethical considerations and biotechnology, the environment and biotechnology, the manipulation of biological machinery (proteins), the fusion of engineering and biotechnology (nanotechnology), the business of biotechnology. University Core fulfilled: Flags: Oral Skills, Writing. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 586  Molecular Cell Biology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Independent laboratory research examining questions pertaining to gene expression, including ribosome biogenesis and mRNA transport/localization, utilizing techniques of molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 587  Molecular Mechanisms in Development Seminar  (2 semester hours)  
An exploration of current research utilizing molecular/genetic techniques to study developmental biology. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 588  Advanced Systems Biology Research  (2 semester hours)  
Investigation of the systems-level properties of biological pathways and networks. Research may include bioinformatics, biomathematics, and/or functional genomics techniques. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 594  Independent Research  (1-4 semester hours)  
Independent research in a faculty laboratory. Results must be presented formally. Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 597  Biology Honors Thesis  (2 semester hours)  
Senior-level capstone research in biology and the preparation and publication of the Honors Thesis. Restricted to members of the University Honors Program. Consent of Instructor required.
BIOL 598  Special Studies  (1-4 semester hours)  
Consent of instructor required.
BIOL 599  Independent Studies  (0-4 semester hours)  
Consent of instructor required.